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Deadly diseases that can actually affect teenagers

By: Ihechi Opara September 14, 2017
deadly teenagers

Many teenagers behave carelessly and are at risk of getting various diseases even at their teen age because they assume those diseases only affect adults.  Rubyplus Africa brings to you a list of diseases that will shock you affected teenagers as well, the causes, symptoms and treatments. This article is to guide you towards a healthy living.

 

            DIABETES TYPE 1

The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body’s own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics and Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors.

Symptoms include:

 Increased thirst

Frequent urination

Bed-wetting in children who previously didn’t wet the bed during the night

Extreme hunger

Unintended weight loss

Irritability and other mood changes

Fatigue and weakness

Blurred vision

Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child.

 

         OBESITY AND HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

Obesity is considered the primary risk for high blood pressure in children. obesity is due to the combination of two factors:

Too much food:  Many kids eat more food than their bodies require. Obesity can also result when a child’s diet is full of the wrong types of food, such as unhealthy snacks and sugary beverages. For that reason, it is important to keep an eye on the quality as well as the quantity of the food your child consumes.

Too little activity: Many children do not exercise enough and spend hours every day engaged in sedentary activities, like watching television, playing video games or using the computer for so long.

            SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

Sexual activity plays a major role in spreading STDs, although it’s possible to be infected without sexual contact. Examples include the hepatitis A, B and C viruses, shigella, and Giardia intestinalis.

Factors that may increase that risk include: Having unprotected sex, having sexual contact with multiple partners, having a history of STIs, having one STI makes it much easier for another STI to take hold,injecting drugs – needle sharing spreads many serious infections, including HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

Symptoms of STDs are;

Sores or bumps on the genitals or in the oral or rectal area

Painful or burning urination

Discharge from the penis

Unusual or odd-smelling vaginal discharge

Unusual vaginal bleeding

Pain during sex

Sore, swollen lymph nodes, particularly in the groin but sometimes more widespread

Lower abdominal pain

Fever

Rash over the trunk, hands or feet

Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child.

 

                         HEPATITIS B

Hepatitis B is an infection of your liver. It can cause scarring of the organ, liver failure, and cancer. It can be fatal if it isn’t treated.

It’s spread when people come in contact with the blood, open sores, or body fluids of someone who has the hep B virus and unprotected sex.

Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B may include:

Abdominal pain

Dark urine

Fever

Joint pain

Loss of appetite

Nausea and vomiting

Weakness and fatigue

Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)

Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child.

 

                                            HIV

A person becomes HIV positive when he engages in sexual intercourse with a carrier. This early stage is called acute stage.

Symptoms are similar to those of the flu and may last anywhere from a few days to several weeks. These include:

Fever

Swollen lymph glands

General aches and pains

As the disease progresses, other symptoms may include:

Swollen lymph nodes

Recurrent fevers

Fatigue

Aches and pains

Nausea, vomiting

Diarrhea

Weight loss

Skin rashes

Oral yeast infections or other infections

Shingles

Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child.

 

 

 

                                     HERPES

The herpes simplex virus is a contagious virus that can be passed from person to person through direct contact. Teenagers will often contract HSV-1 from early contact with an infected adult. They then carry the virus with them for the rest of their lives.

HSV-1

Infection with HSV-1 can happen from general interactions such as:

Eating from the same utensils

Sharing lip balm

Kissing

The virus spreads more quickly when an infected person is experiencing an outbreak. Anywhere from 30 to 95 percent of adults are seropositive for HSV-1, though they may never experience an outbreak. It’s also possible to get genital herpes from HSV-1 if someone who performed oral sex had cold sores during that time.

HSV-2

HSV-2 is contracted through forms of sexual contact with a person who has HSV-2. It is estimated that around 20 percent of sexually active adults in the United States are infected with HSV-2, according to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD). While HSV-2 infections are spread through contact with a herpes sore, the AAD reports that most people get HSV-1 from an infected person who is asymptomatic, or does not have sores.

 

                                        CANCER

It is important to point out that most everyone has risk factors for cancer and is exposed to cancer-causing substances (for example, sunlight, secondary cigarette smoke, and X-rays) during their lifetime, but many individuals do not develop cancer. In addition, many people have the genes that are linked to cancer but do not develop it. Why? Although researchers may not be able give a satisfactory answer for every individual, it is clear that the higher the amount or level of cancer-causing materials a person is exposed to, the higher the chance the person will develop cancer. In addition, the people with genetic links to cancer may not develop it for similar reasons (lack of enough stimulus to make the genes function). In addition, some people may have a heightened immune response that controls or eliminates cells that are or potentially may become cancer cells. There is evidence that even certain dietary lifestyles may play a significant role in conjunction with the immune system to allow or prevent cancer cell survival. For these reasons, it is difficult to assign a specific cause of cancer to many individuals.

Recently, other risk factors have been added to the list of items that may increase cancer risk. Specifically, red meat (such as beef, lamb, and pork) was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a high-risk agent for potentially causing cancers; in addition processed meats (salted, smoked, preserved, and/or cured meats) were placed on the carcinogenic list. Individuals that eat a lot of barbecued meat may also increase risk due to compounds formed at high temperatures. Other less defined situations that may increase the risk of certain cancers include obesity, lack of exercise, chronic inflammation, and hormones, especially those hormones used for replacement therapy. Other items such as cell phones have been heavily studied. In 2011, the World Health Organization classified cell phone low energy radiation as “possibly carcinogenic,” but this is a very low risk level that puts cell phones at the same risk as caffeine and pickled vegetables.

Proving that a substance does not cause or is not related to increased cancer risk is difficult. For example, antiperspirants are considered to possibly be related to breast cancer by some investigators and not by others. The official stance by the NCI is “additional research is needed to investigate this relationship and other factors that may be involved.” This unsatisfying conclusion is presented because the data collected so far is contradictory. Other claims that are similar require intense and expensive research that may never be done. Reasonable advice might be to avoid large amounts of any compounds even remotely linked to cancer, although it may be difficult to do in complex, technologically advanced modern societies

 

                                    HEART FAILURE

In heart failure, the heart cannot pump enough blood through the body.

High blood pressure causes the heart to get larger and work harder, which can then lead to heart failure. You should aim for a blood pressure level of 130/80 or below. Talk to your doctor about ways to lower your blood pressure.

Diabetes is characterized by having too much glucose, or sugar, in the blood for a long time. This can cause heart problems because high blood glucose can damage parts of the body such as the heart and blood vessels. This damage weakens the heart, often leading to heart failure.

You can help prevent heart disease by losing weight if you are overweight, quitting smoking, and limiting the amount of alcohol you drink. Doctors also recommend that you eat a diet low in salt because salt can cause extra fluid to build up in your body.

Limiting foods that are high in saturated fat or cholesterol, such as meats, butter, dairy products with fat, eggs, shortening, lard, and foods with palm oil or coconut oil, can help you maintain a heart-healthy diet. Heart-healthy foods include those high in fiber, such as oat bran, oatmeal, whole-grain breads and cereals, fruits, and vegetables.

Exercise also helps keep your heart strong. Aim for at least 30 minutes a day of exercise.

Symptoms may include:

Shortness of breath (dyspnea) when you exert yourself or when you lie down

Fatigue and weakness

Swelling (oedema) in your legs, ankles and feet

Rapid or irregular heartbeat

Reduced ability to exercise

Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged phlegm

Increased need to urinate at night

Swelling of your abdomen (ascites)

Sudden weight gain from fluid retention

Lack of appetite and nausea

Difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness

Sudden, severe shortness of breath and coughing up pink, foamy mucus

Chest pain if your heart failure is caused by a heart attack

See your doctor if you think you might be experiencing signs or symptoms of heart failure. Seek emergency treatment if you experience any of the following:

Chest pain

Fainting or severe weakness

Rapid or irregular heartbeat associated with shortness of breath, chest pain or fainting

Sudden, severe shortness of breath and coughing up pink, foamy mucus

 

 

                     CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

Chronic kidney disease is a slow progressive loss of kidney function over a period of several years. Eventually, the patient has permanent kidney failure.

In the majority of cases, progressive kidney damage is the result of a chronic disease (a long-term disease), such as:

Diabetes

Hypertension (high blood pressure.

Obstructed urine flow Kidney

Malaria and yellow fever – known to cause impaired kidney function.

Some medications – overuse of, for example, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), such as aspirin or ibuprofen.

Illegal substance abuse – such as heroin or cocaine.

Injury – a sharp blow or physical injury to the kidney(s).

 

The most common signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease include:

Anemia

Blood in urine

Dark urine

Decreased mental alertness

Decreased urine output

Oedema – swollen feet, hands, and ankles (face if edema is severe)

Fatigue (tiredness)

Hypertension (high blood pressure)

Insomnia

Itchy skin, can become persistent

Loss of appetite

More frequent urination, especially at night

Muscle cramps

Muscle twitches

Nausea

Pain on the side or mid to lower back

Panting (shortness of breath)

Protein in urine

Sudden change in bodyweight

Unexplained headaches

 

 

 

 



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